Tag Archives: phages

Bacteriophage Therapy – Will Phages Replace Antibiotics?

Bacteriophage Therapy

Imagine a 100% natural (and safe) supplement that can selectively destroy several strains of bad bacteria, amplify whatever probiotic supplement you may also be taking, while at the same time feed your beneficial intestinal bacteria? Sounds too good to be true? I thought so too, but read on!

As many of you know I’ve been quick to debunk “alternative” treatments that research shows do not work, especially those likely to do harm. I’ve spoken out against everything from green coffee enemas to Rife machines; I also frequently speak out against supplements that are essential antiseptics and kill our beneficial bacteria. Unless something has some independent research behind it, and passes the biologic smell test, I recommend people avoid it. Not only are many of these treatments likely to be useless, but many are harmful; at a minimum, they waste time, money and energy better spent on better options.

So, when I tell you there is a 100% natural treatment that is very selective in the bacteria that it kills, extraordinarily safe (has FDA “GRAS” status), and is relatively inexpensive, you’re naturally going to be skeptical (at least I hope you are, there are a lot of scams out there).Phages on Bacterium

What is this natural treatment? Bacteriophages, or phages for short.

The literal definition of a bacteriophage is “bacteria eating”, because that is their primary function in life, to reproduce through infecting, and destroying, very specific bacterial strains, and only those strains. A phage is a type of virus that invades and kills bacteria, and only very specific bacteria. You can think of phages as beneficial viruses, just like we have beneficial bacteria. Bacterial DNA and anatomy are vastly diverse, humans have more DNA in common with a bird than some bacteria have with each other! So just like you can’t catch the dog flu virus from Fido, a phage can only infect certain bacterial strains, they can not even harm our good microbiota strains.

So why are phages important? I’ve been reading about phages for many years, and we’ve known for nearly 100 years that phages have great promise for replacing antibiotics. Unlike antibiotics, phages are designed (by nature, not man) to kill very specific “bad” bacterial strains. Phages that kill your bad bacterial strains won’t hurt your your beneficial strains at all, in fact the dead bad bacteria will greatly benefit your microbiome (more on that later). They certainly will not infect, or hurt, your human cells, that is impossible. This means your microbiome (and you) are safe; not only safe but your beneficial bacteria are greatly benefited by the lack of competition and adverse conditions created by those unwanted strains.

“The studies were conducted at the Hôpital des Enfants-Malades in Paris in 1919 (68) under the clinical supervision of Professor Victor-Henri Hutinel, the hospital’s Chief of Pediatrics. The phage preparation was ingested by d’Herelle, Hutinel, and several hospital interns in order to confirm its safety before administering it the next day to a 12-year-old boy with severe dysentery. The patient’s symptoms ceased after a single administration of d’Herelle’s antidysentery phage, and the boy fully recovered within a few days. The efficacy of the phage preparation was “confirmed” shortly afterwards, when three additional patients having bacterial dysentery and treated with one dose of the preparation started to recover within 24 h of treatment.” — PMID # PMC90351


Where have phages been? In nature phages are everywhere, and always have been. In medicine they were used in the 1920s and 1930s in Russia, Romania, and even the U.S.; this use pretty much ended when antibiotics were developed and marketed by the drug companies. Because of the “miracle” of antibiotics, funding for phage research dried up. People (and especially Doctors) were fascinated by drugs that could wipe out all bacteria, they didn’t want specificity, they wanted a drug that killed a wide spectrum of bacteria, at the time they thought all bacteria were “bad”. Doctors usually didn’t know what type of bacteria was causing someone to be sick, so antibiotics were the answer. Even today doctors are much more likely to prescribe antibiotics based on symptoms than on cultures, so doctors still like broad-spectrum antibiotics.

“Prior to the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, it was suggested that bacterial infections could be prevented and/or treated by the administration of bacteriophages. Although the early clinical studies with bacteriophages were not vigorously pursued in the United States and Western Europe, phages continued to be utilized in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.” – PMID # PMC90351

Due to the poor understanding of phages at the time, even when phages were used they were often used improperly; the wrong phage was applied to the disease (not the matching phage / bacteria combination), other medications were used that interfered with phages, killing the phages before they could do their job. These same issues also caused scientific studies to fail. In one such study patients receiving phages were also treated with lactoferrin and silver (DOI # 10.12968/jowc.2009.18.6.42801), the study concluded that adding phages did not improve healing. We now know this was because because phages are easily killed by these substances, and many other antiviral / antiseptics. Many subsequent studies have concluded phages do speed healing and you can expect to see many phage treatments coming out in years to come (many are going in to testing phases in the next year or two. Though I’ve seen no prescription trials in the works for gut issues other than c. difficile).

Doctors didn’t know that killing all the good bacteria in the gut was a very, very bad idea. So phages were out, and antibiotics were in.

What has changed since then? Not a whole lot, but in countries where pharmaceuticals aren’t in charge of healthcare there has been research on phages. We know we’re quickly losing effective antibiotics due to antibiotic resistance, so something needs to be done, and soon. With modern equipment and techniques phages can be isolated from the environment easier than ever before, and some are actually coming to market!


Are phages truly safe? Here is what the FDA says about phages:

“Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect only bacteria and do not infect mammalian or plant cells. Phages are ubiquitous in the environment, and humans are routinely exposed to them at high levels through food and water without adverse effect.” — FDA.GOV

“Bacteriophages do not usually cross species or genus boundaries and thus, would not be expected to affect commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Phages are the most abundant self-replicating units in the environment and are present in significant numbers in water, fermented foods such as sauerkraut and cheeses, and other foods including meats, poultry, and vegetables. Given their ubiquitous presence in foods, phages are routinely consumed at high levels and their prevalence in the human gastrointestinal tract is documented.” – FDA.GOV

“bacteriophages had no effect on normal microflora and did not aggravate dysbiotic disturbances. For this reason, bacteriophages may become one of alternative antimicrobial remedies, selectively affecting infective agents.” – PMID # 1882608

“The phage preparation was reported to be (i) efficacious in treating experimental infections of mice and (ii) nontoxic in mice and guinea pigs; i.e., gross and histological changes were not observed after intravenous (i.v.), intranasal, and intraperitoneal administration, even after a dose approximately 3,500-fold higher (estimated by body weight) than the human dose was given to mice during acute toxicity studies… From a clinical standpoint, phages appear to be innocuous. During the long history of using phages as therapeutic agents in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (and, before the antibiotic era, in the United States), phages have been administered to humans (i) orally, in tablet or liquid formulations (105 to 1011 PFU/dose), (ii) rectally, (iii) locally (skin, eye, ear, nasal mucosa, etc.), in tampons, rinses, and creams, (iv) as aerosols or intrapleural injections, and (v) intravenously, albeit to a lesser extent than the first four methods, and there have been virtually no reports of serious complications associated with their use” – PMID # PMC90351

Method of Action

Here is where the real science fiction comes in, except it’s all real!

A regular virus infects living cells and forces them to do their bidding, basically creating a viral factory in each cell to create more viruses. When a virus attacks human cells our immune system detects them and tries to put a stop to it. With some diseases, most infected cells end up dying from the infection so it is important for the immune system to stop this quickly. Some viral infections, however, may cause little damage to the cell and may live commensally for years, or even for the life of the host (e.g. us).

A phage is a special type of virus that only infects bacteria, it does not have the ability to infect human or plant cells. Each phage species has a very narrow range of bacteria that it can infect. Thus, a phage supplement designed (by nature) to destroy certain bacterial strains will not (and cannot) damage the beneficial bacteria in our microbiome.

When a phage infects a bacterium it injects its genetic material into the bacterium. Lytic phages (the type we’re discussing here) take over the bacterium and force it to replicate this material to create new phages. Once this has been accomplished the phage will destroy, or lyse, the bacterium. This basically explodes the bacterium cell to release the new phages. These new phages need to find a new bacterium to infect (again, it must be the same strain), and thus the cycle continues. This process happens quite quickly, in most cases, hours.

With phage therapy, we’ve basically set loose very specific killing machines. Phages actively seek out and destroy only specific types of bacteria, leaving beneficial bacteria untouched and well fed (see below). When they run out of their matching bacteria, they die.


Bacteriophages are currently available for the following bacterium, all of which have antibiotic resistant strains (which are still just as easy for phages to kill):

  • Staphylococcus spp.
  • Enterococcus spp.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris
  • Streptococcus spp.
  • Escherichia coli
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Shigella spp.
  • Klebsiella spp.

Not all of the bacteriophages listed above are commercially available, and few are being used in medicine in Western countries. There simply isn’t profit in it. Doctors are also very hesitant to use something that does not have the liability backing of a drug company. If someone dies because phages were used, rather than the “standard of care”, antibiotics, then the doctor gets sued, not the drug company (even though phages won’t kill anyone, people can still die from their original infection). But the biggest reason phages aren’t being used is probably because there is no big pharmaceutical company advertising and promoting phage therapy; for better or worse, it is all about money.

“The rates of success (marked to complete recovery in conjunction with negative cultures) ranged from 75 to 100% (92% overall) and were even higher (94%) with the 518 patients for whom antibiotic therapy was ineffective… Staphylococcus aureus phages were used to treat patients having purulent disease of the lungs and pleura… Overall, complete recovery was observed in 82% of the patients in the phage-treated group as opposed to 64% of the patients in the antibiotic-treated group.” – PMID # PMC90351

“These recent studies have confirmed that phages can be highly effective in treating many different types of bacterial infections. The lethality and specificity of phages for particular bacteria, the ability of phages to replicate within infected animal hosts, and the safety of phages make them efficacious antibacterial agents.” – PMID # 11909002

“Prophylactic (preventative) use of bacteriophages resembles that described for bacterial probiotics. In essence, phages administered orally can eliminate diarrheic pathogens like Salmonella spp., Clostridium difficile and E. coli. They can also—if designed to do so—modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota composition in a preferred way, bringing further benefits for the host” – PMID # PMC5243869

“The results of this study have clearly shown the lytic activity of commercial bacteriophage cocktails on E. coli and K. pneumonia strains isolated from patients suffering from UTIs… In view of the high prevalence of UTIs, bacteriophages, as natural and self-amplifying antibacterial “drugs,” might offer a non-systemic effective therapeutic option” – PMID # PMC4826877

  • When phages remove bad bacteria from their environment (in this case the gut) it makes room for beneficial bacteria. The more that beneficial bacteria replace bad bacteria, the harder it is for the bad bacteria to return.
  • When phages lyse (explode) bad bacteria their cells become food for good bacteria.
  • Phage therapy can start working in just a few hours, not days or weeks, which is the case with antibiotics. However, treatment may have to be kept up for several months to completely eradicate an infection, rather than just control it.
  • Bacteriophages are very specific, targeting only one or a few strains of bacteria. Antibiotics, on the other hand, have more wide-ranging effect, killing both harmful bacteria and beneficial bacteria.
  • Works with most strains of good bacteria to boost their numbers throughout the gut.
  • Stimulates the colon to maintain a normal microflora
  • Found to be safe, with few if any side effects, in many independent studies, even when taken at many times the effective dose.


I’m seeing a lot of interest in phage and “phage cocktails”. Right now there are several drug companies investigating phages and applying to the FDA to begin human studies. There is also interest in using phages to prevent meat spoilage at grocery stores and our supply chain.

There are currently a few phage products available and currently coming to market. Now that costs of development have come down I think we will start seeing far more new strains becoming available (remember, they’re GRAS so costly FDA approval is not required). The products will be inexpensive as they will not be patentable, but aspirin is not patentable and plenty of companies are making it. So I think the future of phage therapy is a bright one. The main hurtle is that they will not be allowed to be marketed and used as a “drug” unless they go through the multi-billion dollar FDA approval process. They can be used OTC as a “food supplement” or “prebiotic”.

“It’s the only medicine that grows” – Ryland Young, head of the Center for Phage Technology at Texas A&M University

A news story came out in May 2017 about a couple on vacation to Egypt in early 2016. The husband, Tom, became gravely ill and antibiotics were not helping. Turned out he had contracted a bacterial infection called Acinetobacter baumannii, it first infected his gut, but quickly spread to his blood and lungs. He was airlifted first to Frankfurt Germany and then to San Diego, where he was in an ICU for months and very near death most of that time. His wife, Steffanie Strathdee, is the director of UC San Diego’s Global Health Institute, and one of the world’s experts on how HIV spreads. She began a quest to find a last resort treatment for her husband, Tom. It’s an excellent story of love, courage, and persistence. In the end she worked with the U.S. Navy and Ryland Young of Texas A&M to isolate phages that can attack Acinetobacter baumannii. They went on a phage hunt collecting samples from sewage plants in Texas and located about 100 that might be able to help Tom. Getting FDA approval for a “compassionate” use of phages was no easy task, but because of Steffanie’s position and persistence, that approval was obtained. It took nine months of treatment but Tom was able to leave the hospital and go home, all due to one of the first uses of phages to treat a dying patient in decades!

We can only hope that the FDA will loosen the regulations around natural treatments and allow them to be used with the very costly FDA approval process. If they’re safe enough to use as a “supplement” they should be safe enough to save a dying, or very sick person under a doctor’s care.


Other than treatments at specialized clinics in Romania are there any uses of Phages that are available now?

Yes, in fact there are. There is a phage complex being used as a “Prebiotic” in a supplement intended to promote gut health.

Since prebiotics are not used to treat disease and the phages are considered GRAS, they do not FDA approval as a drug if they qualify as a nutritional supplement or prebiotic. Here is how the FDA defines a prebiotic, “Prebiotics have been defined as nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon”. When phages kill bad bacteria the good bacteria consume the dead cells; several studies have shown that beneficial bacteria greatly benefit from the death of these competing bacteria.

One product you may want to investigate is “Phage Complete” by The Gut Protocol LLC.  This location includes more information and research studies on phages for gut health.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


Phage Complete – Benefits Whitepaper

Phage Complete – Benefits

Phage Complete - Click to Order
Click image to Order

Phage Complete is the most advanced Probiotic / Prebiotic / Phage formula on the market today. A proprietary formula based on the latest scientific research, every ingredient has been chosen to heal and benefit the gut. Some strains have been scientifically shown to benefit the gut after taking antibiotics. Though this is a fairly long document I think you’ll find it very informative. Phage Complete is based on thousands of research studies to bring you a supplement designed from the ground up to help heal and benefit the gut, the root of overall good health.

  • Contains a completely safe phage complex that is scientifically shown to selectively kill certain strains of “bad” bacteria, does not harm our beneficial bacteria, and supports a healthier microbiome. The cells of dead bacteria serve as a prebiotic food for our beneficial gut bacteria! PreforPro® supports the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut through a novel prebiotic that’s not fiber or starch-based, and requires a significantly smaller dosage than typical prebiotics.
  • Scientifically shown to vastly amplify the number of beneficial bacteria in the colon and help rebalance the bacterial microbiome of the small intestine. See figure 1.
  • Shown to help the body heal: leaky gut, SIBO, acquired fructose malabsorption, intestinal inflammation, bloating, and thought to benefit any condition where the microbiome is involved.
  • Contains Bacillus subtilis a spore forming bacteria normally found in a healthy gut. This strain can persist in the GI tract, increase its numbers and then re-sporulate. The phage complex enhances this process.
  • Delayed Release capsule ensures probiotics travel safely through the harsh conditions of the stomach to where they belong, in the intestines.
  • Very gentle on you, yet starts working in hours! No bloating fibers or prebiotics.
  • Compare Phage Complete to other products; Phage Complete contains NO Maltodextrin, NO GMO Ingredients, NO Glycerin, NO Magnesium stearate, NO Gluten/Eggs/Soy/Corn/Nuts* and is Vegan diet safe. One bottle of Phage Complete is a two-month supply for most people and costs significantly less than similar probiotics (two capsules per day can be taken during the kill and healing phase). We invite you to compare Phage Complete to the probiotic you’ve been taking.
  • Non-histamine producing probiotic strains, this formula does not cause histamine related inflammation / reactions. This greatly benefits healing as many people with intestinal issues are sensitive to histamine. Inflammation leads to leaky gut and both inflammation and leaky gut can cause many symptoms and slow healing. In fact some of the strains in Phage Complete actually help degrade histamine or help in the healing of histamine intolerance conditions.
  • No d-lactate (d-lactic acid) producing probiotic strains. Most probiotics contain strains that produce significant amounts of d-lactate and this can cause a range of symptoms for many people. See “Lactic Acidosis – Fatigued, Confused, Grumpy? This might be why.
  • The probiotic strains in this formula produce natural vitamins (including Vitamin K2 and folate) that are easier to absorb and utilize than synthetic vitamin pills. This can also benefit people with certain genetic conditions (such as MTHFR) where certain biochemical pathways, that convert synthetic vitamins to their natural form, may be hindered.
  • FODMAP Diet safe formula, contains no FOS, inulin or other bloating prebiotics. These particular fibers are the “F” in FODMAP. Some probiotic formulas also contain glycerin, which is a polyol, polyol is the “P” in FODMAP. Phage Complete contains no FODMAPs and does not cause gas, bloating or flatulence.
  • No refrigeration required, 11 Billion CFUs at time of manufacture, formulated to maintain at least 7.5 billion CFUs after 18 months (from time of mfg) under normal shelf conditions. Because of the prebiotic phage complex included in this formula, a higher probiotic CFU count would not be recommended. See further details below.
  • Designed to improve the benefits of other probiotics and fermented foods. The CFU increase of some probiotics has been measured at x100 or more compared to the same probiotic without phages. See Figure 1. Consuming other probiotics with a high CFU count (especially histamine and d-lactate producers) is never recommended.
  • Microbial imbalances are linked to many different diseases and conditions. This includes, but is not limited to: diarrhea, constipation, “brain fog”, depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, poor energy levels, IBS, SIBO, autoimmune conditions, and many diseases normally linked to the immune system. Balancing the microbiome can go a long way in helping your body get rid of these conditions or prevent them in the first place.
  • Starts working in hours, not days or weeks. There is a 30-day money back guarantee, if you haven’t started to see some positive results in 30 days return it for a full refund to the address on the bottle. Please include a copy of your PayPal receipt, all refunds will be made through PayPal (either to your PayPal account or the credit card you used to purchase).
  • Less than $1 / day
  • Formulated by the author of The Gut Health Protocol, http://theguthealthprotocol.com
  • Manufactured in a USA Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) facility, independently inspected by NSF.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


Comparison Table

Phage Complete - Product Comparison
Click to Enlarge

The table above compares Phage Complete to 6 other popular probiotics; big names and popular online doctor brands. As you can see Phage Complete is not only less expensive than all but one probiotic, but beats all of them in the comparison. People trying to heal their gut should take 2 capsules of Phage Complete per day for a limited time, this can be lowered to 1 capsule after gut symptoms improve. This may not be advised for some of the other formulas due to unwanted ingredients or poorly selected probiotic strains.

Are you ready to order?  If so, Click Here

When comparing probiotics, you should not look at just the number of strains and CFUs. Phage Complete contains fewer strains and CFUs than some of the other probiotics, but it would have been very easy, and inexpensive, to add more Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains to the formula. However, this would have meant adding strains that produce histamine, create harmful d-lactate acid, break down bile acid, or competed with the other good bacteria while serving little good. The strains in this formula were chosen to provide the greatest benefit, while not leading to harmful inflammation from subclinical histamine overload and other issues. A higher CFU is not always better and can often cause unwanted side effects.

As shown in Figure 2, standard probiotic formulas usually do not benefit the lower regions of the colon, even if taken with inulin. The phage complex in Phage Complete (PreforPro™) not only feeds beneficial bacteria but also selectively kills their unwanted competition; the results are dramatic. It does this without the bloating and gas associated with inulin and many other prebiotic fibers.

Phage Complex

The phage complex included in this formula has been shown to amplify the benefits of many probiotic bacterial strains. Phages work like a very selective kill supplement as well as a highly effective prebiotic. Yet it does this without the side effects of either traditional kill supplements or fiber/starch based prebiotics.

The following bacteria showed significant growth when this phage complex was co-administered, compared to the control: L. rhamnosus, B. bifidum, B. longum, B. subtilis. These strains are also included in Phage Complete. These strains all have benefits to gut health, as described below.

Phages are absorbed by their matching bad bacteria, destabilizing (lysing) the bacterial cell wall, resulting in release of nutrients into the gut environment which can then be utilized by probiotics and the good bacteria of the GI tract. Because of the novel nature of the product, and its patent-pending status, full details have not been released. FDA regulations also do not allow the manufacturer (or us) to market supplements in a way that infers a disease treatment, therefore the exact pathogenic bacterial strains killed by the included phages are not available for release. But they were selected to provide the greatest benefit to the microbiome. The phages in PreforPro® have been granted Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the FDA and are commonly found in our environment (they are not GMO).

PreforPro is a novel prebiotic that supports the growth of healthy bacteria in the gut through a mechanism that is not fiber or starch‐based.

Benefits include:

  1. it is efficacious in small doses (15mg) and starts working within hours (not days),
  2. it functions in both the small and large intestines,
  3. it does not cause flatulence or bloating,
  4. is not affected by varying gut environments,
  5. it works in conjunction with a broad spectrum of probiotic species (such as those included in kefir, kimchi, sauerkraut, etc). We’ve included 5 probiotics that have been specifically tested to benefit from this phage complex; these probiotics are discussed below.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


Lactobacillus plantarum

L. plantarum is a gram-positive oxygen tolerant anaerobic bacteria. It is commonly found in fermented vegetable foods (such as sauerkraut and kimchi) and plant matter.

  • Non-Histamine Producing
  • Non D-Lactate Producing
  • May mitigate symptoms after antibiotic therapy
  • Can produce the vitamin folate in the intestine

This strain has been shown in research studies to protect against intestinal permeability (leaky gut).

“These data demonstrate that pretreatment with L. plantarum 299v, which is a probiotic bacterium, protects against E. coli-induced increase in intestinal permeability, and that L. plantarum 299v alone has no influence on the intestinal permeability. Thus, this study supports the concept that probiotics may exert beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract.” — PMID #11911334

“administration of L. plantarum 299v counteracts the otherwise increased passage of mannitol across the small intestinal wall induced by a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli… L. plantarum 299v administered for one week in the drinking water could protect from E. coli-induced permeability… in a placebo controlled study of critically ill patients treated by antibiotics, L. plantarum 299v was shown to reduce the colonization of Clostridium difficile… L. plantarum 299v has been administered in randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trials to IBS patients, where they experienced relief in their symptoms including significantly less bloating and abdominal pain” – PMID # PMC3257727

“L. plantarum in intestinal epithelial function and its therapeutic effects in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction and intestinal inflammation and justifies the use in inflammatory disorders, which is significant to both biotechnical and clinical fields. L. plantarum can protect against intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction” – PMID # PMC2997994

An IBS & SIBO “… study has shown that 4 weeks of treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum improved symptoms such as pain and flatulence in IBS patients and these effects continued for 1 year. L. plantarum was found in the feces (84%) and rectal mucosa (34%) only in the treated group. This result showed that probiotics could alter the host gut microbiota composition with improvement of IBS symptoms… Another similar study in 40 patients with IBS significantly ameliorated abdominal pain and improved all IBS symptoms compared to placebo.” – PMID # PMC3155061

“L plantarum 299v, was shown to abolish increased intestinal permeability in rats exposed to Escherichia coli.” – DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.06.068

“evidence from experimental animal studies consistently indicates that probiotics exert barrier-enhancing, antibacterial, immune-modulating, and anti-inflammatory effects, which all could be benefits in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal failure… L plantarum 299v may either prevent or delay symptom recurrence after antibiotic therapy” — doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2005.11.046

“Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production” – PMC3257725

Lactobacillus rhamnosus

L. rhamnosus is a gram-positive beneficial bacteria strain commonly found in probiotics. It is also found in kefir and un-pasteurized milk. It is both acid and bile-stable and helps keep the environment of the gut healthy by producing l-lactic acid. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG survives gastrointestinal transit and does not produce D-lactate (PMID # 16734098). Though not a true “resident” strain, it is thought to have the ability attach to the intestinal lumen and stay through several bowel movements. L. rhamnosus is one of the world’s most researched probiotic strains with over 800 scientific studies.

  • Non-Histamine Producing
  • Non D-Lactate Producing
  • Mast Cell / Histamine Stabilizer
  • Can help prevent Antibiotic-associated diarrhea
  • Can produce Vitamin K2 in the intestine

“Median duration of diarrhoea was significantly shorter (P<0.001) in children who received L rhamnosus strain… One day after the first probiotic administration, the daily number of stools was significantly lower (P<0.001) in children who received L rhamnosus strain” – PMID # PMC1949444

We conclude that Lactobacillus (rhamnosus) GG supplementation is well tolerated and may reduce the frequency of severe diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort related to 5-FU-based chemotherapy. – PMID # PMC2360429

“Patients who received Lactobacillus had less grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea (22 vs 37%, P=0.027), reported less abdominal discomfort, needed less hospital care and had fewer chemotherapy dose reductions due to bowel toxicity. No Lactobacillus-related toxicity was detected… We conclude that Lactobacillus (rhamnosus) GG supplementation is well tolerated and may reduce the frequency of severe diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort related to 5-FU-based chemotherapy.” – PMID # 17895895

“Using meta-analyses, three types of probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and probiotic mixtures) significantly reduced the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.” – PMID # 16635227

“L.rhamnosus JB-1 treatment lead to significant inhibition of mast cell mediator release in response to a range of stimuli including IgE mediated activation… These studies demonstrate that Ingestion of L.rhamnosus JB-1 leads to mast cell stabilization in rats and identify KCa3.1 as an immunomodulatory target for certain lactobacilli. Thus the systemic effects of certain candidate probiotics may include mast cell stabilization and such actions could contribute to the beneficial effect of these organisms in allergic and other inflammatory disorders.” – PMID # PMC3398942

Lactobacillus rhamnosus “have a potential protection effect against colon carcinogenesis; inducing apoptosis and ameliorating inflammation, and may hold a promise as bio-therapeutic dietary agent.” – PMID #27447122

“production of menaquinones, or vitamin K, which is a capacity that appears unique for L. rhamnosus among the Lactobacillus genus” – PMID #PMC4943194

Bifidobacterium bifidum

Produces no histamine and no d-lactic acid, Gram-Positive. Once babies are born, B. bifidum is one of the first colonizers of the human. In a healthy adult gut, this strain continues with us for life.

  • Non-Histamine Producing
  • Non D-Lactate Producing
  • Protects the intestinal wall and reinforces the epithelial barrier function. Improves and thickens the mucus layer of the gut.
  • Helps fight h.pylori and partially relieves damage it causes to the gastric tissue.
  • Improves intestinal tight junctions, helps repair and prevent leaky gut.

“mucin breakdown activity as operated by B. bifidum could trigger the secretion of additional colonic mucin, thus increasing the thickness of the total amount of mucus layer covering the gut and so reinforcing the epithelial barrier function, which constitutes an important feature especially in those subjects affected by irritable bowel syndrome… The capacity to efficiently use mucus is a typical feature also of Akkermansia muciniphila, a human intestinal species that has been associated with healthy intestines and disease prevention” – PMID # PMC4140077

“These results, together with the diminished H. pylori pathogenicity ratio in animals treated with bifidobacteria, indicate that strain B. bifidum CECT 7366 is a potential probiotic, exerting in vivo antagonistic activity against H. pylori. Furthermore, in vivo assays have demonstrated that it partially relieves damage to gastric tissues caused by the pathogen.” – PMID # PMC3067243

“Strengthening of the intestinal epithelial tight junction by Bifidobacterium bifidum… These results suggest that Bifidobacterium species enhance intestinal epithelial barrier function” – PMID # 25780093

“Bifidobacterium bifidum improves intestinal integrity in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)… administration of B. bifidum protects against NEC in the neonatal rat model. This protective effect is associated with reduction of inflammatory reaction in the ileum, regulation of main components of mucus layer, and improvement of intestinal integrity… B. bifidum treatment appears to enhance the development and formation of functional TJs… altered distribution pattern of these two TJ proteins contributes to increased intestinal permeability and disassembly of TJs leading to a breach in mucosal barrier in NEC animals. Treatment with B. bifidum prevents these pathological changes by protecting intestinal barrier integrity, thus blocking translocation of luminal toxins into systemic circulation.” – PMID # PMC2777452

“we showed that B. bifidum-induced restoration of epithelial TJ (Tight Junction) barrier may be attributed to increased production of acetate and formate, as demonstrated in cocultures of B. bifidum and Caco-2 cells… B. bifidum WU12 exerted the highest TER-restorative effect on Caco-2 cell monolayers among the tested Bifidobacterium strains.” – PMID # PMC4393161

Bifidobacterium longum

  • Non-Histamine Producing
  • Non D-Lactate Producing
  • Possibly improves cognition
  • Converts sugars to l-Lactic acid which has been shown to create an environment inhospitable to many bad bacterial strains and hospitable to beneficial strains.
  • Promotes proper mast cell activation.
  • Can help reduce inflammation in the gut.
  • May benefit people with fructose malabsorption as B.longum utilizes excess fructose as a food source (doing so without harmful byproducts).

“Bifidobacterium longum alleviates food allergy through mast cell suppression. – 2016 PMID # 26433560

“The effect of BL (Bifidobacterium longum) were evaluated first on two different models. Using ex vivo human skin explant model we found a statistically significant improvement versus placebo in various parameters associated with inflammation such as a decrease in vasodilation, oedema, mast cell degranulation and TNF-alpha release.” – PMID # 19624730

“Increasing evidence suggests that a brain-gut-microbiome axis exists, which has the potential to play a major role in modulating behaviour. However, the role of this axis in cognition remains relatively unexplored. Probiotics, which are commensal bacteria offering potential health benefit, have been shown to decrease anxiety, depression and visceral pain-related behaviours… B. longum 1714-treated mice made fewer errors than other groups, suggesting a better learning. In the fear conditioning, B. longum 1714-treated group also showed better learning and memory” – PMID # 25794930

“B. longum probiotics suppressed inflammatory destruction of the gut” – PMID # PMC3725482

“A number of studies have indicated that resistant carbohydrate is utilized by the bacteria in the colon in the biosynthesis of folate, particularly Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum… A number of other B-group vitamins that are synthesised by members of the microbiota and that may be produced in the gut include riboflavin, vitamin B12, niacin and pyridoxine” – PMID # PMC3571646

“inhibits the growth of C. albicans and some pathogenic bacteria.” – PMID # 18661679

“Short term synbiotic (Bifidobacterium longum) treatment of active UC resulted in improvement of the full clinical appearance of chronic inflammation in patients receiving this therapy.” – PMID # PMC1774839

“Gout is an acute inflammatory disease characterised by the presence of uric acid crystals in the joint… oral BL (Bifidobacterium longum) treatment reduced the inflammatory response in an experimental murine model of gout, suggesting it may be useful as an adjuvant treatment in patients with gout.” – PMID # 26322542

“The researchers found that mice colonized by one bifidobacterium subspecies, B. longum, were able to survive when fed the pathogenic bacteria E. coli O157, while GF mice without the bacteria died of infection within 7 days… The key actor in this mechanism is a carbohydrate transporter encoded by genes present in certain strains of bifidobacteria such as B. longum, which enables these bacteria to utilize fructose to produce acetate in the distal colon.” – DOI: 10.1038/nature09646

“Bifidobacterium longum may down-regulate IL-18 and IL-1β (proinflammatory cytokines) expressions… thus reduce the visceral hypersensitivity of PI-IBS (postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome).” – PMID # 26697916

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


Bacillus subtilis – DE111®

  • Non-Histamine Producing
  • Non D-Lactate Producing
  • May improve villi health
  • May mitigate symptoms after antibiotic therapy
  • Spore forming, stays in the gut 30-60 days
  • DE111 supports the normal breakdown of complex carbohydrates and fats, promoting proper digestion and nutrient absorption
  • Communicates with intestinal cells to maintain gut barrier function [1]
  • Crowds out bacterial pathogens and maintains healthy gut flora [2] [3]

Bacillus subtilis was discovered by German soldiers during WW2. A large number of German soldiers were dying of dysentery while fighting in African and little to no medicine was available. German scientists discovered that the locals had a treatment they had been using for at least hundreds of years, when someone got sick with dysentery they would eat a small amount of fresh camel dung. It was later discovered that this dung had a very large amount of a bacteria later named Bacillus subtilis. Bacillus subtilis was later cultured commercially and used by the German army to cure dysentery. After the war many western countries started using B. subtilis for gut and urinary tract diseases.

“B. subtilis promotes shallower crypt depth, which results in longer villi, greater villi surface area and more absorptive epithelial cells. Furthermore, shallower crypt depth promotes rapid epithelial turnover in response to inflammation from pathogenic bacteria… Changes in small intestinal morphology and in particular, increased villus height and VH: CD ratio in ducks fed diets supplemented with B. subtilis indicate improved gut health and digestive capacity” – PMID # PMC5143344

“Ingestion of significant quantities of B. subtilis is thought to restore the normal microbial flora following extensive antibiotic use or illness” – PMID # PMC99781

“The experiments showed that 70–90% of dietary-supplemented Bacillus spores germinate in the proximal part of the pig GI tract… Bacillus strains can temporarily remain in the GI system, but will be unable to permanently colonize the GI tract.” — doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03633.x

“B. subtilis strain may be considered as non-pathogenic and safe for human consumption.” – PMID # 17934835

“CONCLUSIONS: Bacillus indicus and B. subtilis should be considered safe for oral use” – PMID # 18312567

“Bacillus subtilis R0179 used in several commercial probiotic products… Strains were subsequently screened for the presence of enterotoxins and virulence factors and were subjected to 28 days of repeated high-dose oral toxicity testing in rats. No risk factors or aberrant activities were identified using such a detailed approach. Thus, both microbes were deemed to pose low risk to the consumer and, therefore, safe for use as probiotics.” – PMID # 18449224

“Spores of Bacillus species are found in soil, dust, and water as well as in the air (27). Their primary reservoir though, has long been considered soil, and indeed, they can be found there in abundance… we have used a molecular approach to prove that orally administered B. subtilis spores germinate, proliferate, and then resporulate within the gut” — doi:10.1128/JB.188.7.2692–2700.2006

“The safety of Bacillus species has been extensively reviewed elsewhere (de Boer and Diderichsen, 1991; Ishibashi and Yamazaki, 2001; Logan, 2004; Osipova et al., 1998; Sanders et al., 2003; SCAN, 2000a) and most incidences of illness associated with Bacillus appear to result for opportunistic infections or miss-diagnosis. Extensive animal studies including acute and sub-chronic toxicity testing as well as in vitro studies have now been performed on a number of species, including B. subtilis var. Natto (Hong et al., 2008), Bacillus indicus (Hong et al., 2008), B. coagulans (Endres et al., 2009) and B. subtilis 2335 (Sorokulova et al., 2008) and B. licheniformis 2336 (Sorokulova et al., 2008). All appear to show no indicators of adverse effects. Studies are showing that these bacteria are able to grow within the intestinal tract and possibly be considered temporary residents. This is important because it shows that these bacteria are not foreigners but rather may exert a unique symbiotic relationship with their host.” – DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2010.03.007

  • Phage Complete - Click to Enlarge

Are you ready to order?  If so, Click Here

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


  1. Thomas, Carissa M, and James Versalovic. “Probiotics-Host Communication: Modulation of Signaling Pathways in the Intestine.” Gut Microbes 1.3 (2010): 148–163. PMC. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
  2. Vacca A, Pantaleo G, Ronco M, Dammacco F. Chemoimmunotherapy for multiple myeloma using an intermittent combination drug schedule (melphalan + prednisone) and alternating course of B. subtilis spores. Chemioterapia. 1983;2:300–305
  3. Mazza P. The use of Bacillus subtilis as an antidiarrhoeal microorganism. Boll Chim Farm. 1994;133:3–18

* Though Phage Complete contains none of the allergy causing ingredients listed, it is manufactured in a plant that may process these ingredients. Though great care is taken to prevent cross-contamination this can’t be guaranteed.

New Advanced Probiotic / Prebiotic Formula

Announcing – Phage Complete

After years of looking for a good Probiotic I finally gave up! There just wasn’t one. So I decided to develop and contract for one to be created! It also has a unique new Prebiotic. The name of this new product is Phage Complete.

Continue reading New Advanced Probiotic / Prebiotic Formula

Phage Complete Order Form


The regular price of Phage Complete is $49.95 / 60 count bottle, through July 15th the introductory price will be $39.95 (even less for multi-bottle orders). Simple math just won’t let me keep selling at that price; I’m so confident that you’ll find Phage Complete beneficial that I’m counting on repeat orders. Click on the Paypal button below to order.

The checkout process will be completed through a secure Paypal connection, no one has access to your card information except for Paypal. A PayPal account is optional, it is not required, but if you have one your order will also be covered by their purchase protection. The first screen is where you choose the quantity (for multi-bottle discounts), from then on you’ll be on the secure Paypal site.  International orders – see below for important information. Sales Tax will be added to all Minnesota orders. Free Priority Mail Shipping in the U.S.

Please note: During this introductory period you may experience processing delays of 2-3 extra business days before the item is shipped,  please bear with us.

Buy now with PayPal


  • Phage Complete - Click to Enlarge

Click Here for International Ordering Information

International ordering to many countries is available. However, you will need to know the customs and duty rules / costs in your country before ordering. You’re advised to contact your local tax agent or customs office to get an estimate of what these fees / rules might be.

Once an order is placed it can not be canceled.  I’m sorry, but  no refunds will be issued for orders refused, confiscated, or duties assessed by customs. The postal service says shipping to most countries is 6-10 days, but this may not include the time spent in customs; this can sometimes add 7-14 days in a few countries.

Shipping Rates

$33.95 International Priority Air
Australia, Austria, Belgium, China, Czech Republic, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Greenland, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Lucia, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Turks and Caicos Islands, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Vatican City State, Virgin Islands (British), Yugoslavia.

$27 International Priority Air

Free Priority Mail
All United States and Territories

If you live in another country, and wish to place an order, contact me and I’ll see what I can do. Shipping rates may be a bit higher, and your risk of problems with custom clearance might also be higher. Some countries are not included due to very high fraud reports / advisories.